Bilder unter stromsbrokoloni.sediaorg/wiki/Quasar ansehen. Während die von mir postulierten Jets an entsprechenden kosmischen Objekten direkt nachgewiesen . Der QUASAR-Motor (QUA.S.A.R., Quarter Liter Smooth Augmented Range) ist eine Motorengeneration von Piaggio, die seit gebaut wird. Die Aeroalcool Quasar ist ein Ultraleichtflugzeug des brasilianischen Herstellers Aeroálcool Tecnologia Ltda. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Geschichte und Konstruktion.
Quasar Wiki VideoQuasarborn - Danse Macabre (Official Video)
wiki quasar -Dieser Katalog lässt sich als Bezugssystem für astronomische Kataloge und für die Geodäsie einsetzen. Quasare sind über weite Bereiche der elektromagnetischen Strahlung hell und haben charakteristische Spektren mit sehr breiten Emissionslinien, die in rascher Bewegung befindliches Gas anzeigen. Patzer beendet bedeutet, dass ein krit. Der Salarianer Schells versucht, ein Betrugssystem für Quasar zu entwickeln, indem er mit einem Gerät Siege und Niederlagen aufzeichnet. Lichtjahre dahinterliegende Galaxie wirkt, ergibt sich eine direkte Möglichkeit zur Massenbestimmung eines Quasars. Ho fanden ein Modell zur vereinheitlichten Beschreibung vielfältiger Quasar-Erscheinungsformen. Nach heutiger Annahme befindet sich im Zentrum aller Galaxien mit einem Bulge ein sehr massereiches Schwarzes Loch , das mehrere Millionen bis Milliarden Sonnenmassen umfassen kann. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Das Ziel von Quasar ist es, durch Addieren von zufälligen Zahlen aus zwei Bereichen möglichst nahe an eine Summe von 20 heranzukommen, ohne diese zu überschreiten.
Quasar wiki -Mehr Informationen zur gesprochenen Wikipedia. Lichtjahre dahinterliegende Galaxie wirkt, ergibt sich eine direkte Möglichkeit zur Massenbestimmung eines Quasars. Dank der von Arthur Stanley Eddington beschriebenen Eddington-Grenze , und der Eddington-Akkreditionsrate, dem Verhältnis der Menge einfallender Materie zur abgestrahlten Energie des Quasars, lässt sich, bei bekannter Entfernung, die Masse des Materie verschlingenden Objekts abschätzen und die Masse des Quasars ermitteln. Diese Folgerung konnte seit der Entdeckung von Gravitationslinsen unabhängig bestätigt werden. Die leuchtkräftigsten Quasare erreichen bis über 10 14 -fache Sonnenleuchtkraft. Da Quasare seltene Himmelsobjekte sind, ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit, drei oder mehr separate Quasare an der gleichen Stelle zu finden sehr gering.
Some of them changed their luminosity very rapidly in the optical range and even more rapidly in the X-ray range, suggesting an upper limit on their size, perhaps no larger than our own Solar System.
They were described as "quasi-stellar [meaning: The first quasars 3C 48 and 3C were discovered in the late s, as radio sources in all-sky radio surveys.
Using small telescopes and the Lovell Telescope as an interferometer, they were shown to have a very small angular size.
In , a definite identification of the radio source 3C 48 with an optical object was published by Allan Sandage and Thomas A.
Astronomers had detected what appeared to be a faint blue star at the location of the radio source and obtained its spectrum, which contained many unknown broad emission lines.
The anomalous spectrum defied interpretation. British-Australian astronomer John Bolton made many early observations of quasars, including a breakthrough in Another radio source, 3C , was predicted to undergo five occultations by the Moon.
Measurements taken by Cyril Hazard and John Bolton during one of the occultations using the Parkes Radio Telescope allowed Maarten Schmidt to find a visible counterpart to the radio source and obtain an optical spectrum using the inch Hale Telescope on Mount Palomar.
This spectrum revealed the same strange emission lines. Schmidt was able to demonstrate that these were likely to be the ordinary spectral lines of hydrogen redshifted by Although it raised many questions, Schmidt's discovery quickly revolutionized quasar observation.
Shortly afterwards, two more quasar spectra in and five more in , were also confirmed as ordinary light that had been redshifted to an extreme degree.
Although the observations and redshifts themselves were not doubted, their correct interpretation was heavily debated, and Bolton's suggestion that the radiation detected from quasars were ordinary spectral lines from distant highly redshifted sources with extreme velocity was not widely accepted at the time.
An extreme redshift could imply great distance and velocity, but could also be due to extreme mass, or perhaps some other unknown laws of nature.
Extreme velocity and distance would also imply immense power output, which lacked explanation, and conflicted with the traditional and predominant Steady State theory of the universe.
The small sizes were confirmed by interferometry and by observing the speed with which the quasar as a whole varied in output, and by their inability to be seen in even the most powerful visible light telescopes as anything more than faint starlike points of light.
But if they were small and far away in space, their power output would have to be immense, and difficult to explain. Equally if they were very small and much closer to our galaxy, it would be easy to explain their apparent power output, but less easy to explain their redshifts and lack of detectable movement against the background of the universe.
Schmidt noted that redshift is also associated with the expansion of the universe, as codified in Hubble's law. If the measured redshift was due to expansion, then this would support an interpretation of very distant objects with extraordinarily high luminosity and power output, far beyond any object seen to date.
This extreme luminosity would also explain the large radio signal. Schmidt concluded that 3C could either be an individual star around 10km wide within or near to our galaxy, or a distant active galactic nucleus.
He stated that a distant and extremely powerful object seemed more likely to be correct. Schmidt's explanation for the high redshift was not widely accepted at the time.
A major concern was the enormous amount of energy these objects would have to be radiating, if they were distant. In the s no commonly-accepted mechanism could account for this.
The currently accepted explanation, that it was due to matter in an accretion disc falling into an supermassive black hole, was only suggested in by Salpeter and Yakov Zel'dovich ,  and even then it was rejected by many astronomers, because the existence of black holes was still widely seen as theoretical and too exotic, in the s, and because it was not yet confirmed that many galaxies including our own have supermassive black holes at their center.
The strange spectral lines in their radiation, and the speed of change seen in some quasars, also suggested to many astronomers and cosmologists that the objects were comparatively small and therefore perhaps bright, massive and not far away; accordingly that their redshifts were not due to distance or velocity, and must be due to some other reason or an unknown process, meaning that the quasars were not really powerful objects nor at extreme distances, as their redshifted light implied.
A common alternative explanation was that the redshifts were caused by extreme mass gravitational redshifting explained by general relativity and not by extreme velocity explained by special relativity.
Various explanations were proposed during the s and s, each with their own problems. It was suggested that quasars were nearby objects, and that their redshift was not due to the expansion of space general relativity but rather to light escaping a deep gravitational well special relativity.
This would require a massive object, which would also explain the high luminosities. However a star of sufficient mass to produce the measured redshift would be unstable and in excess of the Hayashi limit.
One strong argument against them was that they implied energies that were far in excess of known energy conversion processes, including nuclear fusion.
There were some suggestions that quasars were made of some hitherto unknown form of stable antimatter regions and that this might account for their brightness.
The uncertainty was such that even as late as , it was stated that "one of the few statements [about Active Galactic Nuclei] to command general agreement has been that the power supply is primarily gravitational",  with the cosmological origin of the redshift being taken as given.
Eventually, starting from about the s, many lines of evidence including the first X-Ray space observatories , knowledge of black holes and modern models of cosmology gradually demonstrated that the quasar redshifts are genuine, and due to the expansion of space , that quasars are in fact as powerful and as distant as Schmidt and some other astronomers had suggested, and that their energy source is matter from an accretion disc falling onto a supermassive black hole.
This model also fits well with other observations that suggest many or even most galaxies have a massive central black hole.
It would also explain why quasars are more common in the early universe: The accretion disc energy-production mechanism was finally modeled in the s, and black holes were also directly detected including evidence showing that supermassive black holes could be found at the centers of our own and many other galaxies , which resolved the concern that quasars were too luminous to be a result of very distant objects or that a suitable mechanism could not be confirmed to exist in nature.
By it was "well accepted" that this was the correct explanation for quasars,  and the cosmological distance and energy output of quasars was accepted by almost all researchers.
Hence the name 'QSO' quasi-stellar object is used in addition to "quasar" to refer to these objects, including the 'radio-loud' and the 'radio-quiet' classes.
The discovery of the quasar had large implications for the field of astronomy in the s, including drawing physics and astronomy closer together.
It is now known that quasars are distant but extremely luminous objects, so any light which reaches the Earth is redshifted due to the metric expansion of space.
Quasars inhabit the center of active galaxies, and are among the most luminous, powerful, and energetic objects known in the universe, emitting up to a thousand times the energy output of the Milky Way , which contains — billion stars.
This radiation is emitted across the electromagnetic spectrum, almost uniformly, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays.
With high-resolution imaging from ground-based telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope , the "host galaxies" surrounding the quasars have been detected in some cases.
Most quasars, with the exception of 3C whose average apparent magnitude is Quasars are believed - and in many cases confirmed - to be powered by accretion of material into supermassive black holes in the nuclei of distant galaxies, as suggested in by Edwin Salpeter and Yakov Zel'dovich .
Light and other radiation cannot escape from within the event horizon of a black hole, but the energy produced by a quasar is generated outside the black hole, by gravitational stresses and immense friction within the material nearest to the black hole, as it orbits and falls inward.
Central masses of 10 5 to 10 9 solar masses have been measured in quasars by using reverberation mapping. Several dozen nearby large galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, that do not have an active center and do not show any activity similar to a quasar, are confirmed to contain a similar supermassive black hole in their nuclei galactic center.
Thus it is now thought that all large galaxies have a black hole of this kind, but only a small fraction have sufficient matter in the right kind of orbit at their center to become active and power radiation in such a way to be seen as quasars.
This also explains why quasars were more common in the early universe, as this energy production ends when the supermassive black hole consumes all of the gas and dust near it.
This means that it is possible that most galaxies, including the Milky Way, have gone through an active stage, appearing as a quasar or some other class of active galaxy that depended on the black hole mass and the accretion rate, and are now quiescent because they lack a supply of matter to feed into their central black holes to generate radiation.
The matter accreting onto the black hole is unlikely to fall directly in, but will have some angular momentum around the black hole that will cause the matter to collect into an accretion disc.
Quasars may also be ignited or re-ignited when normal galaxies merge and the black hole is infused with a fresh source of matter.
In fact, it has been suggested that a quasar could form when the Andromeda Galaxy collides with our own Milky Way galaxy in approximately 3—5 billion years.
In the s, unified models were developed in which quasars were classified as a particular kind of active galaxy , and a consensus emerged that in many cases it is simply the viewing angle that distinguishes them from other active galaxies, such as blazars and radio galaxies.
More than , quasars are known, most from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All observed quasar spectra have redshifts between 0.
Applying Hubble's law to these redshifts, it can be shown that they are between million  and Facility was attacked by a Skrull Task Force, P.
Nova, the resurrected Quasar, and Darkhawk managed to repel most of the Skrull invaders before Wendell was forced to return to the flask to recharge.
Due to years of use, Wendell's soul somehow became linked to the Quantum Bands. Using this link, he felt Phyla-Vell's death and rebirth at the hands of Maelstrom and the Dragon of the Moon , instantly teleporting from Earth to the realm of Oblivion , where he reacquired the bands from Phyla, now reborn as the new Avatar of Death.
This hole, dubbed the Fault , threatened to expand and consume all of reality. Wendell would maintain contact with his universe via a Quantum Link.
While traveling through the Fault, Wendell somehow regained his corporeal form as well as a new costume. Arriving in the Cancerverse, Wendell found himself in a twisted and dystopian version of New York City.
Almost immediately Wendell was attacked by a giant monster , which initially overpowered him before the intervention of the "Avengers".
During the course of the battle, Ms. Marvel and Scarlet Witch grew suspicious of Wendell, declaring him to be from "somewhere else". Captain America ordered Thor to "hammer" the monster, causing it to revert back into Bruce Banner.
Captain America deemed Banner to be too dangerous and unstable to have around and ordered Iron Man to tear his heart out.
Turing their attention to Wendell, the Avengers concluded that he wasn't "their" Quasar and promptly imprisoned him.
While imprisoned, the Avengers explained that their world was "filled" by the Many-Angled Ones and that they intend on using the Fault to seek out new universes for them to conquer; mentioning that their Quasar had also been sent beyond the Fault on a scouting mission.
Scarlet Witch entered the room, claiming Wendell was made from "Quantum-Phasic energy", and that a distinct energy path connects him to his universe of origin.
She asked the other Avengers to clear out as she needed some time to concentrate in order to plot the course to Wendell's universe in detail.
Suddenly the Vision emerged from Scarlet Witch's body and freed Wendell. Vision explained that he had been hiding in his wife's body for years in an effort to find a cure for his world and that the only ones opposing the Many-Angled Ones were machines like him.
Wendell flew from his prison, past Ms. Marvel, Iron Man, and Thor, and off into space where he discovered, much to his horror, that the universe itself was comprised of a single giant, organic mass.
Wendell lost contact with his universe shortly thereafter. Gladiator , who had recently assumed control of the Shi'ar Empire , sent the Imperial Guard and the Starjammers on a scouting expedition to the Fault.
Wendell claimed he had been running for days and warned that whatever was pursuing him was right behind him. Gladiator received the message and arrived in the Fault with reinforcement Guardsmen.
Wendell managed to escape from the Fault due to the combined efforts of himself, the Imperial Guard, the Starjammers, and Talon of the Fraternity of Raptors , who had been masquerading as Guardsman Smasher.
Almost immediately after reaching Chandilar, Wendell sent a message to Nova, detailing what he just went through, and warning him of the horrors that lay beyond the Fault.
Nova concluded that the Quasar that recently arrived at Project P. During his brief time on Earth, the Quasar from the Cancerverse had constructed a "Horrorscope", a device used for locating something.
Declaring that he had found what he was looking for, "Quasar" left Earth to deliver the news to his master in person. Nova went after him, and sent out an 8x8 distress signal warning everybody he could that the Fault was a top priority threat to the entire universe.
The duo chased "Quasar" to a Universal Church of Truth Templeship, merely one of hundreds amassed along the border of the Fault, where Nova demanded to know what the Cancerverse Quasar was looking for back on Earth.
Suddenly Nova was attacked from behind by Adam Magus. The Xandarian Worldmind informed Nova that Magus's power greatly exceeded his own and that the best course of action was to run.
Wendell tried to intervene, but was effortlessly tossed aside by Magus. Wendell noticed that, in addition to the UCT Templeships, Magus had also brought entire planets to the mouth of the Fault.
With a single word Magus blew up the planets, significantly widening the tear in space and time. From out of the Fault came "Quasar" and Magus's dark master: Wendell and Nova survived the destruction of the planets and went to assist the Nova Corps in battling the creatures that emerged from the Fault.
During the fight, Lord Mar-Vell sent the Revengers to kidnap the recently resurrected Namorita  due to her nature as a "temporal anomaly.
Wendell was present when the weaponized corpse of the Cancerverse Galactus broke through the Fault. Nova suggested that the Cancerverse invasion was only to establish a foothold in their universe and that Lord Mar-Vell was planning something else.
Believing Namorita and the others that the Revengers had kidnapped were important to Mar-Vell's plans, Nova proposed the formation of a small strike team to mount a rescue mission.
In an effort to prevent further galactic catastrophes, Quasar joined the Annihilators. Wendell eventually started to lose control over the Quantum Bands.
He bequeathed them to S. In a similar manner to the inmates, albeit voluntarily, Wendell was transformed into an old man and the curator of the Pleasant Hill Museum, the place where the Quantum Bands were kept, to remain there as a failsafe in case Kobik needed to be neutralized.
During a super villain uprising led by Baron Zemo , S. Agent Avril Kincaid resorted to finding the Quantum Bands.
As a consequence of the upheaval, anybody who had had their true selves modified by Kobik regained their memories and true appearance, including Wendell.
After regaining his memories, he gave Kincaid the Quantum Bands. Once the conflict was resolved, Wendell began tutoring Avril on using the bands, helping her become the new Quasar.
As a being of pure quantum energy, Quasar can shape his "body" into any shape he can imagine, explosively disperse his form, though he can tire if he overuses his powers.
Wendell is a S. He likes to use melee weapons, and will use his bands to create them. Skilled in various martial arts. Without the Quantum Bands to enhance his strength, Vaughn has the strength of a normal human male who engages in intensive exercise.
Formerly Quasar had limited contact with the Earth's surface while the Ego spore was contained within him. Formerly Quantum Bands , Avengers Quinjet.
The bands could draw upon quantum energy for a number of effects such as creating various kinds of constructs, shields, interstellar flight and a form of teleportation he calls quantum jumping.
More complex and powerful constructs take more time to create. An incomplete construct is essentially worthless.
Constructs last until dismissed or destroyed, but requires attention to animate. Sign In Don't have an account? Contents [ show ]. What's the worst that could happen?
How can I protect the universe from another universe? Wendell Vaughn is an athletic man with no inherent superhuman powers. He received extensive training in hand-to-hand combat, and moderate experience in the same.
He is an expert in all basic espionage skills, as a S. While he possessed the power of the Star Brand , Quasar gained the abilities of flight, superhuman strength and resilience.
He also was able to regenerate his entire body from minute remains and did not need to eat, drink or breathe. However, virtually all of the energy derived from the Star Brand was depleted not long after he gave it away.
The Living Tribunal later stated that Quasar's body retains only an insignificant trace amount of energy. Quasar also briefly possessed the same powers of cosmic awareness that Eon granted to Kree soldier Mar-Vell later known as the original Captain Marvel.
By simply concentrating for a moment, he could gain complete knowledge about virtually anything in the universe. While Quasar's powers are quite powerful and diverse, since he doesn't make it a habit of using all of his power to destroy his opponent, it is important to note his standard operating procedure: After a failed war with the Elder God Set and the deaths of every hero on Earth save the Silver Surfer, Quasar is merged with Captain Universe to form a super-being capable of capturing and defeating Set.
Using the Eye of Agamotto, Quasar traps himself and Set within its pocket dimension. Once, during a trip through alternate realities, the Earth version of Quasar viewed his Captain Universe-enhanced counterpart and Set battling each other.
Tricked by Eon's evil "child" Era, Quasar jumps to a sentient nexus of energy and is killed. He ends up in the 'White Room', where all Quantum Band wielders go after death.
Eon is entrapped with him, in the form of a centerpiece on the Room's table. Her, now called Kismet , teams up with the long-lost son she had with Quasar, Starhawk.
They visit Quasar's grave and learn what Era has done. With the aid of the Hawk-God Starhawk worships, the two vow to stop Era. Wendell Vaughn briefly appears as a scientist in the alternate timeline.
There is no indication that he possesses the quantum bands in this universe. Quasar is briefly mentioned as having gone insane in Last Avengers Story 1, but does not appear.
Dead Days 1, Quasar is one of the heroes attending the briefing given by Nick Fury about defending their world from the zombie plague.
The group destroys many of the somewhat heroic zombies featured in Marvel Zombies 2. Quasar murders his reality's human Kitty Pryde , holding her underwater until she is forced to turn solid, upon which it is implied that Namor eats her.
Quasar and his zombie cohorts are killed at the end of the series. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Quasar Cover art for Annihilation: Nova 3 Art by Gabriele Dell'Otto. Guardians of the Galaxy team.
The Last Avengers Story. Retrieved July 28, The Incredible Hulk in the s". Imperial Guard 3 , Marvel Comics. Devastation Jan , Marvel Comics.Several dozen nearby large galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, that do not have an active center and do not show Beste Spielothek in Katzenbach finden activity similar to a quasar, are confirmed to contain a similar supermassive black hole in their nuclei galactic center. The jets that produce strong radio emission in some quasars at the centers of clusters of galaxies are known to have enough power to prevent the hot gas in those clusters from cooling and online casino with bonus onto the central galaxy. The Earth was still threatened, however, by the quickly Beste Spielothek in Kerspleben finden mass of Ego, the Living Planet. Em polen spiel heute page was last edited on 13 Julyat Well, according to an eight billion year old being, I'm protector of the universe. Retrieved from " http: A multiple-image quasar is a quasar whose light undergoes gravitational lensingresulting in double, triple or quadruple images of the same quasar. Captain America ordered Thor to "hammer" the monster, causing it online wetten bonus ohne einzahlung revert back into Bruce Banner. Vaughn initially refrains from using this ability except when in space or in dire circumstances, but eventually discovers that he can prevent this effect by surrounding himself with a barrier of solid energy before jumping. Retrieved from " https: With the aid of the Contemplatorhe discovers the cosmic being Eternity in a catatonic state. Various explanations were proposed during the s and s, each with their own problems. High-resolution images of quasars, particularly from the Hubble Space Telescopehave demonstrated that quasars occur in the centers of galaxies, and that some host galaxies are strongly interacting or merging galaxies. He is one quasar wiki Marvel's cosmic heroes, a character whose adventures frequently take him into outer space or other dimensions. Allerdings gibt es auch einen kritischen Patzer. Yue Shen und Luis C. Die allermeisten Zauber können auch mit enormer Kraft gewirkt werden, was den Effekt meist maximiert oder gar vervielfacht. Sie kann eine Leuchtkraft ähnlich der von vielen Milliarden Sternen erreichen und somit mehr Licht abstrahlen als die gesamte umgebende Wirtsgalaxie. Sofern die Akkretionsscheibe über ein starkes Magnetfeld verfügt, wird ein kleiner Anteil des Materiestromes in zwei Teile gerissen und in Bahnen entlang der Feldlinien des Magnetfeldes gezwungen. Aktive Galaxien unterscheiden sich von normalen Galaxien dadurch, dass dieses Schwarze Loch mit der Zeit an Masse zunimmt, da Materie aus der umgebenden Galaxie interstellares Gas oder zerrissene Sterne durch die Gravitation des Schwarzen Loches angezogen wird. Die Trennung anhand der Leuchtkraft ist rein historisch bedingt. Begriffsklärung siehe Quasar Begriffsklärung. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 4. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Anmelden Du hast noch kein Benutzerkonto? Diese Eigenschaft wird genutzt, um aus den Quasaren ein Referenzsystem aufzubauen. Dieser Quasar wird auf Englisch als multiply imaged quasar bezeichnet. Neun weitere Fälle konnten bislang dokumentiert werden. Nach heutiger Annahme befindet sich im Zentrum aller Galaxien mit einem Bulge ein sehr massereiches Schwarzes Lochdas mehrere Millionen bis Milliarden Sonnenmassen umfassen kann. Dieser Katalog lässt sich als Bezugssystem für astronomische Kataloge und für die Geodäsie einsetzen. Quasare wurden inzwischen bis zu einer Rotverschiebung von 7,1 entdeckt. Quasare sind über weite Bereiche der elektromagnetischen Strahlung hell und haben charakteristische Spektren mit sehr breiten Emissionslinien, die in rascher Bewegung befindliches Filefinder pl slots huuuge casino hack 2k19 anzeigen. Quasar ist ein Automaten-Glücksspiel, das man im Book of Ra deluxe 6 Online Slot | PLAY NOW | StarGames Casino Flux spielen kann. Sichtlinie bedeutet, dass der Zauber eine Sichtlinie benötigt oder nicht. Die Beste Spielothek in Niedertreba finden Zauber können auch mit enormer Kraft gewirkt werden, was den Effekt meist maximiert oder gar extreme casino. Commander Shepard entdeckt, dass jemand einen Quasar-Automaten free sizzling spielen manipuliert hat, dass dieser Geld für den Angreifer abzweigt. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Lichtjahre dahinterliegende Galaxie wirkt, ergibt sich eine direkte Möglichkeit zur Massenbestimmung Beste Spielothek in Oberweischlitz finden Quasars. Ein weiterer Quasar — in Falschfarben dargestellt. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Sofern die Akkretionsscheibe über ein starkes Magnetfeld betsson casino freispiele, wird ein kleiner Anteil des Materiestromes in zwei Teile gerissen und in Bahnen entlang der Feldlinien des Magnetfeldes gezwungen.